The Bedouin are scattered across the huge desert area of the Arabian Peninsula and are famous for their nomadic and wandering lifestyle, moving either frequently or seasonally, and earning a living by working as stockbreeders, transporters or tradesmen. They mostly occupy the less fierce coastal plains, though they can withstand the hostile environment of the interiors of the desert.
An essential feature of their tradition includes the Bedouins tent, their dwelling since the beginning of time. Though its design may have been altered due to the various trends and geographical features across the desert, nevertheless some essential features remain the same. The tent needs to be flexible and it must be lightweight. The importance of the owner, or the size of the family, determines the size of the tent. Woven from the hair of domesticated sheep and goats, a black tent, known as beit al-shaR or the house of hair is used extensively across the desert. The tent is streaked with brown and black, as the natural color of the animals are retained. It is about 10-15 degree cooler inside the tent than outside, as the tent cloth is woven loosely to allow the heat to escape. During the rainy season, the swelling of the yarn prevents holes and leaks. Men and women's section is divided by a brightly-colored curtain and the women's section is the larger of the two; the food, cooking utensils are stored here. The men aren't allowed inside the women's section.
The population of the Karakum is meager-averaging one person per 2.5 square miles (6.5 square km)-and consists mostly of Turkmen, among whom a number of tribal distinctions have been conserved. From antiquity the populace of the Karakum practiced wandering pastoralism and fished along the length of the coasts of the Caspian Sea and the Amu Darya, but in contemporary times nearly all have established onto communal and private farms and have developed stable towns with gas and power. Cattle-raising teams care for the domestic animals. The development of oil, gas, and other industries has brought new settlements, populated by assorted nationalities.
Tauregs is one of the largest group who lived in Sahara desert. They lived there for than two millennia and administered the trans-Saharan caravan trade that created a nexus between the cities on southern edge of the desert via five desert trade route. Camel nomadism was adopted by the tauregs. The remaining tauregs are now settled agriculturists or the nomadic cattle breeders and at some places blacksmiths and caravan leaders are also found. They have a matrilineal society, but unlike Muslim society women do not wear the veil whereas men do. They have very personal marriage and there is law that any outsider cannot interfere in their marriage. They are not allowed to have more than one life partner and if the husband or wife dies than he or she is expected to remarriage. They are pastoral people who live on livestock breeding, trading and farming. Women do various works like making butter, preparing animals skins, make clothes and bedding from the skin.
People living in the Kalahari region are known as Bushmen living there for more than for atleast 20,000 years. They have light yellowish skin which wrinkles very early in life. They are called by different names like 'San' and 'Basarwa'. They are generally hunter and gatherers. Their diet consists of plant food, including berries, nuts, roots, melons gathered usually by women and meat (usually antelopes) hunted by men using poisoned arrows and spears. They make temporary homes using wood. They also make use of medicinal plants for various disease. Their average life expectancy is about 45-50 years. Most Kalahari Bushmen believe in a "Greater" and a "Lesser" Supreme being or God. There are other supernatural beings as well, and the spirits of the dead. The greater god, known as Cagn is considered the creator of the world and the lesser god is considered evil who brings devastation and bad luck.
There is no fixed population in the Takla Makan. Hunters make periodic visits, but the area is not used by stock breeders because of the virtual absence of vegetation. In the 1950s oil was discovered at the northern edge of the Takla Makan. Even greater deposits were discovered from 1980s along the southern rim and in the central portion. Transportation across this desert has remained hazardous, though roads exist surrounding the edge of the desert, and across the centre of the desert Tensions between Han (Chinese) authorities and the dozen or so Hui (Muslim) minority peoples native to the Takla Makan have existed for centuries. Chinese migration into the region, coupled with Islamic fundamentalist agitation elsewhere in Asia and minority unrest across the border in the Central Asian republics, has fostered more open hostility by local peoples against the Chinese.
North American Desert
The arid region of North America is home to the cultures of more than seventeen modern Native American tribes.
Phoenix, Arizona is the largest city in the desert region. It has a population of about 4.3 million. Based on the banks of Salt River in central Arizona, it is one of the fastest-growing metropolitan areas in USA. In 2007, desert was losing ground to urban spread at a rate of about 4,000 square meters per hour in the Phoenix area.
South American Desert
The Atacama Desert
The Atacama is thinly populated, with most cities located along the Pacific coast. In interior areas, oases and some valleys have been populated for many years. These oases have had little population growth and urban development, and have, since the 20th century, faced conflicts over water resources that are needed for the coastal cities and the mining industry.
In the 19th century the population grew immensely, mostly due to immigration from central Chile.
Populated towns in the desert include San Pedro de Atacama and Freirina. In San Pedro de Atacama there is a marketplace for artisanal goods.
The Monte Desert
The area is thinly populated today and those that do live here endure mainly by the raising of livestock such as sheep and goats. Resource mining, especially of oil, gas, and coal in parts of the region, is another way humans cooperate with and control the desert environment.
The desert has hosted various indigenous species. In its past, as evidenced by cave paintings in the area. In the 18 and 19th century the northern part of the desert came under Mapuche influence.
Mapuches came to carry out horse husbandry in the northern part of the Patagonian grassland. Mapuche tribes came to control trade across the desert and traded with the cities of southern Chile as well as Buenos Aires and the Cuyo region.
The population is consists of mining workers ,farmers and a majority of aboriginals that arrived through sea thousands of years ago. The aboriginals share a profound system of spirituality, which thwy celebrate in in their creation stories, traditions, visions, music, dance, art and sacred lands.