The oceans are a major influenceon weather and climate in many ways:
-They transport large quantities of heat from onelocation to another
-They are the source of water in the water cycle.
-Oceans also absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphereand play an important role in controlling the rate at which carbon dioxide isincreasing in the atmosphere.
The western Pacific has a rainy season which occurs during the summer months and a dry season during the winter months. The bottom layers of the ocean are a lot colder – almost freezing – than the surface layers. The surface layer of the Pacific Ocean waters ranges from about 300 to 900 meters deep. This warm layer is shallower along the coasts of North America than in the central and western regions of the Pacific. Along Canada’s west coast the surface temperatures of the Pacific Ocean rarely get warmer than 15ºC.
The Atlanticis notorious for its changeable weather and huge storms. Tropical cyclones(hurricanes) develop off the coast of Africa near Cape Verde and move westwardinto the Caribbean Sea. Hurricanes may come from May to December, but are mostfrequent from August to November.
The Atlantic has the mosticy waters after theArcticocean. As the Atlantic waters are a little milderthere are moreanimalsinthisocean comparedto the Arctic.
Northeast monsoon season is from December to April, whilethe southwest monsoons come from June to October. Tropical cyclones occurduring May- June and October-November in the north Indian Ocean and January-Februaryin the south Indian Ocean.
Thebottom islike allthe oceanscolder thanthe surface.However, thetemperaturesare milderas you go upfrom the bottom.
Sea temperatures vary from about−2 to 10C (28 to 50F). Cyclonestravel east around the continent andfrequently become more severe because ofthe temperature contrast between ice and open ocean. The strongest winds found anywhere on Earth blow in theocean-area south to the Antarctic Circle. In winter surface temperatures fall wellbelow 0 degrees Celsius and a part of the ocean freezes.
The polarclimate is characterized by permanently low temperatures with little annualvariation. It is continuously dark for six months in the winter, with cold, stableweather conditions, and clear skies. Summers are characterized by continuousdaylight, damp and foggy weather, and weak cyclones with rain or snow.
The Arctic ocean is colderonly than the Antarctic. The extreme weather conditions atdepth andon surface make itdifficult foranimals and fishto survive intheicywaters.